Turkmenistan is a predominantly arid country with over 80% of its territory characterized by desert and oases, with mountainous zones primarily along its southern borders.
The country is located in central Asia, bordered by Iran to the south, Uzbekistan to the northeast, Kazakhstan to the north, Afghanistan to the southeast, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Turkmenistan has an area of 488,100 square kilometers. The capital, Ashgabat, is located in the south-central part of the country, near the border with Iran.
The Turkmenistan population is smaller than in other central Asian states with about 5 million in 2011.
Only 3 percent of Turkmenistan's land is arable. The Kara Kum, or Black Sand Desert, occupies almost 75 percent of Turkmenistan's territory. The 16 urban areas along its borders and coastline account for 45 percent of the population. Almost 50 percent of the population lives around the capital, Ashgabat, and only 2 other cities have populations with more than 100,000 inhabitants.
Climate warming in Turkmenistan is progressing fast. Average annual air temperature in the country has been rising by 0.18-0.2° over the decade. Turkmenistan is among those countries, which are more vulnerable to climate change effects, experiencing difficulties mainly in the fields of agriculture, water resources, public health and natural ecosystems.
Turkmenistan ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on July 5, 1995 and the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC in December, 1998. In parallel, a State Commission has been created to ensure implementation of obligations of Turkmenistan arising from the international environmental conventions and programs.
Selected Indicators for Impacts and Vulnerabilities