The Republic of Tajikistan is a land locked country located between 36°40'N to 41°05'N latitude and 67°31'E to 75°14'E longitude with an area of 143 thousand sq km. Tajikistan shares its border with Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the north and west, China to the east, and Afghanistan to the south. Mountains occupy about 93% of the terrain, with altitudes ranging from 984 feet to 24,589 feet. Nearly 50% of Tajikistan's territory is above 10,000 feet above sea level.
Glaciers occupy about 6% of the total area. These serve important hydrological and climatic functions by retaining water, controlling flows and regulating the climate. Glaciers and permafrost are the main source of water recharging the Aral Sea river basin . Geographically, Tajikistan is divided into four natural zones: Northern Tajikistan, Southern Tajikistan, Central Tajikistan, and the Pamirs. The western part of the country is occupied by foothills and steppes; lowland areas are found along river valleys in southwestern Tajikistan.
The country’s population and agricultural activities are concentrated in the valleys and in the western part of the country . The agriculture sector accounts for 21% of GDP and 64% of employment . Other key economic activities include industry, services, education, public health and other sectors . Agricultural land constitutes 4574 thousands ha, i.e. 32% of the total area of the country, with 739 thousand ha of arable land . Tajikistan’s major agricultural products are cotton and cereals. The country has large deposits of natural resources such as water, coal, oil, gas, mercury, gold, silver, salt, limestone, marble, and clay. Water resources are used to irrigate agricultural farms, supply industrial supply and domestic needs, and generate about 95% of all electricity .
Tajikistan’s population has grown from 5.3 million in 1990 to 6.97 million in 2011 The annual urban population growth rate is about 1.4 per year with urban population about 27% of total in 2011. The mortality rate of children under 5 per 1000 stood at 63 in 2011 .
Tajikistan ranks around 109th in the world for all greenhouse gas emissions and 129th in emissions per person. Despite being one of the countries least responsible for causing climate change, the people of Tajikistan are already experiencing the impacts of climate change with more frequent droughts and heightened extreme weather conditions that are particularly hitting poor communities and eroding their resilience.
Selected Indicators for Impacts and Vulnerabilities