Cambodia is part of mainland Southeast Asia. Bordered by Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam and with a coastal region on the Gulf of Thailand, it covers an area of 181,040 square kilometers. The Mekong River is the most prominent geographical feature of the county, flowing directly from the north to the Mekong Delta of Vietnam in the south. The Tonle Sap Lake, an outlet of the Mekong River during the rainy season, is located in the country’s northwest region. Cambodia’s topography includes the low-lying central plains of the Mekong, which are surrounded by mountainous and highland regions. The country’s coastline measures 435 km.
The population of Cambodia was 14.5 million in 2010, with 80% living in rural areas. 52% of the population lives in the central plains, 30% in the surroundings of Lake Tonle Sap, 11% in the highlands and mountains, and only 7% along the coast. The national average population density is low for the region at 75 people per km2.
Cambodia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is USD 10354 million per annum, and the country’s economy relies primarily on agriculture (33% of GDP and employing 57% of the country’s labor force), industry (predominantly garments - 21% of GDP and employing 15.9% of the country’s labor force), and services (42% of GDP and employing 26% of the country’s labor force). Annual GDP growth rate has fluctuated widely from 5 to 13% in the 2000s. In 2008, GDP grew by 6.5%, with agriculture, fisheries and forestry accounting for 32.4 % of GDP, industry for 22.8 %, and services for 38.8%. The contribution of industry to GDP has doubled since 1993, but a substantial proportion of the population is still dependent on the farming and fisheries sectors. Cambodia is vulnerable to floods and droughts, mostly due to reliance on agriculture and fisheries.
Selected Indicators for Impacts and Vulnerabilities