Kazakhstan Dashboard
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Recent Trends
Average Annual Temperature 0.31 °C in the past 10 years  
'cold' days per year -3  
'hot' days per year 1.3  
duration of heat waves Explore Further
Key Sectors
Agriculture
Pastures (Land Use)
Water Resources
Forestry
Human Health Explore Further
Natural Hazards
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Overview
The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in north-central Eurasia and is the ninth largest country in the world based on the size of its territory – 2,724.9 square kilometers. It has a population of 16.6 Millions (as of 2011) with a density of population of 5.6 people per 1square meter. There is a higher proportion of urban population (56–57%) than rural (43–44%). Kazakhstan’s terrain is diverse, with the country situated in four climate zones: forest-steppe; steppe; semi-desert and desert. According to assessment, nearly 75% of the country’s territory is subject to high-risk ecological destabilization. The main source of economic growth is the country’s raw resources. Since 1985, Kazakhstan’s production of hydrocarbons has increased 225%, while at the same time the world’s output rose less than 1.3. The country’s 2005 oil production (including gas condensate) amounted to 61.9 million tones and the production of natural gas was 25.2 billion cubic meters.Kazakhstan GDP growth is accompanied by significant polluting emissions. It is estimated that around 75% of the country is at increased risk of adverse environmental impact to climate change. A primary source of GHG emissions is energy (fuel combustion) amounting for 72% in 2005. The second contributor is agriculture, the proportion of which has reduced from 15% in 1990 to 9% in 2005. In 2005 fugitive emissions contributed around 9% of Kazakhstan’s total emissions. Industrial processes contributed 6% and the proportion of waste was 3%. Absorption by LULUCF amounted 2.5 %. In 2005, Kazakhstan’s CO2 emissions, without carbon absorption by forests, were 195.0 Tg – this is almost 80% of the national total. The proportion of methane was around 16%, and nitrogen oxide contributed about 5% (Figure. 2.2). The main sources of methane were fugitive emissions and agriculture, and 95% of N2O emissions caused by agriculture. In 2009 Kazakhstan ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and is a Party to Annex 1.
Selected Indicators for Impacts and Vulnerabilities
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