Ecosystem Services, especially forests Explore Further
The Republic of Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelagic state, consisting of more than 17,500 islands and covering over 81,000km of coastline . These islands are home to an extremely varied geography, topography and climate, ranging from sea and coastal systems to peat swamps to montane forests. Most of the 2 million square kilometers Indonesia’s landmass is covered by forests that are harbor a wealth of biodiversity. Forests, marine and coastal ecosystems provide vital services to sustain millions of livelihoods and drive economic growth. A high population density, rapid industrailization coupled with this dependance on the country’s resource base make the country vulnerable to projected changes in climate. Almost 230 million people inhabit Indonesia, with the majority (~54%) living on the island of Java. In spite of rapid economic growth in the last decades, approximately 140 million people still live on less that US$2 per day and average per capita income is $814. Seventeen percent of the population lives in rural areas where poverty levels have begun to decline thanks to a concerted Government effort. Climate variability and change are exacerbating many of the disaster risks that Indonesia faces today. During the past four decades, floods, droughts, storms, landslides and forest fires have posed the greatest threats to livelihoods, economic growth and environmental sustainability. While the public is gradually gaining awareness of the importance of accounting for the impacts of climate variability and change, more evidence-based response and adaptation measures are needed. The Asian Development Bank estimates that by 2100, the impacts of climate change will cost between 2.5 to 7 percent of GDP. The poorest will bear the brunt of this burden as they are typically most vulnerable to the impacts of drought, floods and landslides and pursue livelihoods that are highly dependent on climate-sensitive sectors (i.e fisheries and forestry).
Selected Indicators for Impacts and Vulnerabilities